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IGCSE History Exams

Past paper questions – Russia 1905-1941

October-November 2002

Q#

Topic

Details

11 

Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?

(a) Describe the reforms of Stolypin (1906–11). [5]

(b) Why was there growing discontent in Russia between 1914 and 1917? [7]

(c) How important was Lenin in bringing about revolution in Russia in October 1917? Explainyour answer

12 

How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their rule?

How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?

(a) What part did Trotsky play in the Bolshevik Revolution to 1925? [5]

(b) Why was Stalin able to become dictator of Russia by 1929? [7]

(c) ‘Stalin only kept control in Russia by oppression and the elimination of opponents.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer.

October - November 2003

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their rule?

(a) What was the ‘war communism’? [5]

(b) Why were the Reds successful in the Civil War? [7]

(c) How far did the New Economic Policy prove that the Bolsheviks had failed to establish a Communist state in Russia? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) What were the advantages of collective farming? [5]

(b) Why was collectivisation opposed by many peasants? [7]

(c) How successful were Stalin’s economic policies? Explain your answer. [8]

  May - June 2004

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?

(a) Describe the main features of Tsarist rule over Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. [5]

(b) Explain why Nicholas II survived the 1905 Revolution. [7]

(c) How important was the First World War in the collapse of Tsarist rule? Explain your answer.[8]

12 

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) Describe the main features of Stalin’s first Five Year Plan. [5]

(b) Explain why Stalin introduced collectivisation. [7]

(c) How successful was Stalin in modernising the Soviet Union by 1941? Explain your answer.[8]

  October - November 2004 

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their rule?

(a) Describe War Communism. [5]

(b) Explain why the Bolsheviks were successful in the Civil War, 1918–21. [7]

(c) ‘Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) was a success.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) Describe how Stalin became leader of the Soviet Union. [5]

(b) Explain why Stalin introduced the Purges. [7]

(c) ‘Stalin was a disaster for the Soviet Union.’ Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

  May - June 2005

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?

(a) Describe the events of Bloody Sunday. [5]

(b) Why did revolution break out in Russia in 1905? [7]

(c) ‘The Tsar survived the 1905 revolution only because he issued the October Manifesto.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their rule?

How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?

(a) What was the New Economic Policy? [5]

(b) Why was Stalin able to defeat Trotsky in the leadership contest? [7]

(c) ‘Sending people to labour camps was the most effective way Stalin controlled the people of Russia.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

  October – November 2005

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?

(a) Describe how Stolypin attempted to deal with Russia’s problems. [5]

(b) Why was the revolution of March 1917 successful? [7]

(c) ‘The Provisional Government was overthrown because it decided to continue the war against Germany.’ How far do you agree? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) What were collective farms? [5]

(b) Why did Stalin want to modernise farming? [7]

(c) How successful were Stalin’s Five-Year Plans? Explain your answer. [8]

  May - June 2006

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?

(a) Describe the impact of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) on the Russian people. [5]

(b) Explain how the Tsar was able to survive the 1905 revolution. [7]

(c) Which of the following was the most important reason for the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II: the influence of Rasputin; military defeats in the First World War; food shortages?Explain your answer with reference to all three reasons. [8]

12 

How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?

How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?

(a) What was Lenin’s ‘Political Will’ (Testament)? [5]

(b) Why was Stalin able to become leader of Russia by 1928? [7]

(c) Which was the more effective of Stalin’s methods for controlling the people of Russia – terror or propaganda? Explain your answer. [8]

  October – November 2006

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their rule?

(a) What problems faced the Provisional Government in taking control of Russia after the Tsar’s abdication? [5]

(b) Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power? [7]

(c) ‘The Bolsheviks won the Civil War because of the War Communism policy.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) What was collectivisation? [5]

(b) Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation? [7]

(c) ‘Stalin’s industrialisation policy had a greater impact on the lives of Soviet people than on the economy.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

  May - June 2007

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

How did the Bolsheviks gain power, and how did they consolidate their rule?

(a) What problems did the Provisional Government face on taking over from the Tsar? [5]

(b) Why was the Provisional Government a failure? [7]

(c) ‘Trotsky’s leadership of the Red Army was the most important reason why the Civil War was won by the Bolsheviks.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) Describe the main features of Stalin’s first Five Year Plan. [5]

(b) Why did Stalin introduce Five Year Plans? [7]

(c) How successful was industrialisation under Stalin? Explain your answer. [8]

  October – November 2007

Q# 

Topic 

Details 

11 

Why did the Tsarist regime collapse in 1917?

(a) Describe the main features of Tsarist rule before 1914. [5]

(b) Why was the Tsar able to survive the 1905 Revolution? [7]

(c) ‘The most important reason for the Tsar’s abdication in March 1917 was Russia’s defeats

during the First World War.’ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [8]

12 

How did Stalin gain and hold on to power?

What was the impact of Stalin's economic policies?

(a) What was the ‘cult of personality’? [5]

(b) Why did Stalin carry out the Purges? [7]

(c) How far do you agree with the view that Stalin’s rule up to 1941 was a disaster for the Soviet Union? Explain your answer. [8]

 

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