IGCSE History
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Exams and Revision

IGCSE History: An Introduction - The Core Study

International Relations 1914-91 subject content

What caused the First World War?The origins of the First World War, 1890-1914: the Alliance System, colonial rivalries, developments in the Balkans, the crisis of June-July 1914 and the outbreak of war.

Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair? The peace treaties of 1919-23 (Versailles, St. Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres and Lausanne); the roles of individuals such as Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George in the peacemaking process; the impact of the treaties on the defeated countries;contemporary opinions about the treaties. 

To what extent was the League of Nations a success? The League of Nations; strengths and weaknesses in its structure and organisation; successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920s; the impact of the World Depression on the work of the League after 1929; the failures of the League during the 1930s, including Manchuria and Abyssinia. 

Why had international peace collapsed by 1939? The collapse of international order in the 1930s; the increasing militarism of Germany, Italy and Japan; Hitler's foreign policy to 1939; the Saar, remilitarization of the Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland; appeasement and the outbreak of war in 1939. 

Who was to blame for the Cold War? The origins of the Cold War; the 1945 summit conferences and the breakdown of the USA-USSR alliance in 1945-6; Soviet expansionism in Eastern Europe to 1948, and American reactions to it; occupation of Germany and the Berlin Blockade. 

How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? Events of the Cold War: case studies of American reactions to the Cuban revolution, including the Missile Crisis and its aftermath, and American involvement in the Vietnam War. 

How secure was the USSR's control over Eastern Europe, 1948-c.1989? Soviet power in Eastern Europe; resistance to Soviet power in Hungary, 1956, and Czechoslovakia, 1968; the Berlin Wall;' Solidarity' in Poland; Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Empire.